Completing Well

After a well has been drilled, it must be completed before oil and gas production can begin. The first step in this process is installing casing pipe in the well.

Oil and gas wells usually require four concentric strings of pipe: conductor pipe, surface casing, intermediate casing, and production casing. The production casing or oil string is the final casing for most wells. The production casing completely seals off the producing formation from water aquifers.

The production casing runs to the bottom of the hole or stops just above the production zone. Usually, the casing runs to the bottom of the hole. In this situation the casing and cement seal off the reservoir and prevent fluids from leaving. In this case the casing must be perforated to allow liquids to flow into the well. This is a perforated completion. Most wells are completed by using a perforated completion. Perforating is the process of piercing the casing wall and the cement behind it to provide openings through which formation fluids may enter the wellbore.

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